The Nlaka’pamux (Thompson), St’at’imc (Lillooet), Syilx (Okanagan) and Secwépemc (Shuswap) engage in a war in the Fraser Canyon with American gold miners’ militias — elected leaders and established militias experienced in Indian wars in the U.S.A — to a standstill, compelling the Americans to sign a peace treaty with the Aboriginal Nations. B.C. Governor James Douglas abdicates responsibility, leaving it up to the Aboriginal warriors to defend the mainland from American invasion.